# Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free

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review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close Frank Close ´ 0 free download review The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe 100 Speculation is rife that by 2012 the elusive Higgs boson will be found at the Large Hadron Collider If found the Higgs boson would help explain why everything has mass But there’s at stake what we’re really testing is our capacity to make the universe reasona. This is a really important popular science book if you are interested in physics because it covers some of the important bits of modern physics that most of us science writers are too afraid to write about Starting with renormalization in ED the techniue used to get rid of the unwanted infinities that plagued the early versions of the theory and moving on to the weak force the massive W and Z bosons the Higgs business and the development of the concept of uarks and some aspects of the theory covering the strong force that holds them in place it contains a string of revelations that I have never seen covered to any degree in a popular text elsewhereTake that renormalization business I have seen and written plenty of passing references to this but never seen a good explanation of what the problem with infinities was really about or how the renormalization was achieved and justified Frank Close does this Similarly I hadn t realised that Murray Gell Mann the man behind the uark name originally took a similar view to uarks as Planck did to uanta a mathematical trick to get the right answer that didn t reflect anything real in terms of the particles involvedFor at least the first half of the book I was determined to give it five stars despite itself The content was sufficiently important and infreuently covered to reuire this That despite itself is because this is no light read it makes the infamously freuently unfinished Brief History of Time seem a piece of cake I think the reason for this is that the concepts here are alien to the reader than those typically met in traditional hard topics like relativity or uantum theory Close does define a term like gauge invariance before using it but then keeps using it for chapter after chapter The trouble is to the author this is an everyday concept but to the reader the words are practically meaningless unlike say space and time in relativity so a couple of pages on from the definition we ve forgotten what it means and get horribly lost These aspects spontaneous symmetry breaking is another example would have benefited hugely from a detailed explanation and then use of approachable terms along the way rather than what can be a highly opaue jargonI could forgive the author this though After all his writing style is fine and there is all that interesting content But there were a couple of things that dragged the book down a little for me The first was a tendency to skip over bits of science leaving them mysterious For example at one point we are told that a process can be split into five categories scalar pseudo scalar tensor vector and axial Of these only vector and scalar are defined so when we are told that the weak force was classified as V A we have no clue what this means as we don t know what axial means or the significance of the minus sign This is Rutherfordian stamp collecting giving us labels without understanding the meaningWorse though and the dominant part of the second half of the book was that there was just far too much dissecting exactly who contributed exactly what little component to the theory and who got the Nobel prize for what and who didn t get it despite deserving it Frankly this is too much of an insider s idea of what s important We don t really care I wish this had been omitted leaving room for handholding on the theoryThe trouble is there were far too many people involved to get any successful human interest going in the story Nobel prizes of themselves don t make people interesting I have two scientific heroes in the last 100 years Richard Feynman and Fred Hoyle Obviously I m in awe of the work of many others Einstein say but this misses the point In that same period there must have been getting on for 300 Nobel prize winners in physics alone I m interested in their work but I can t get too excited about them as people Those who criticise popular science for being too driven by the stories of a few individuals when so many have contributed miss the point You can only have so many heroesOverall this remain a really important book if you want to get to grips with modern particle physics and uantum field theory It fills in lots of gaps that other books gloss over But it would be remiss of me not to also point out my concerns Originally published on wwwpopularsciencecouk and reproduced with permission

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review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close Frank Close ´ 0 free download review The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe 100 The kind of physics that the Higgs boson represents seeks to “renormalize” field theory forcing euations to provide answers that match what we see in the real world The Infinity Puzzle is the story of a wild idea on the road to acceptance Only Close can tell. I have always been fascinated by the whole business of the unification of the world of the electron and the photon with the so called weak force that mediates radioactive decay As someone with an undergraduate physics degree and a PhD and subseuent career in MRI physics I have a bit of an advantage over an average layperson but in fact I have none of the relevant background to understand the technicalities of uantum electrodynamics ED let alone uantum field theory FT other than the most basic knowledge of introductory uantum mechanics Over the last thirty or so years there has been a growing genre of books by leading theoretical physicists who have attempted to explain their conceptually extraordinary vision of our world to the layperson using metaphors and simplified models They often write extremely clearly but there is always a limit to how much intuitive understanding can be communicated when the subject matter is truly so impenetrably difficult to grasp Over the years I have found this frustrating There is the initial excitement that I am going to develop a rather meaningful intuition about the way in which the physical universe is apparently built only to have my hopes dashed by some terribly important key concept that keeps eluding my understandingNowadays I have time on hand to ponder these great issues Frank Close s book has certainly helped to reawaken my interest It focusses on the history of how the Standard Model of the elementary particles and forces of nature was built over the last fifty or so years It mixes some very clear explanations of the basic concepts with a detailed account of the jostling of some of the physicists for Nobel glory Close goes into almost painful detail about missed opportunities the way posterity has seemingly passed over a number of the most important players and how a few of these became embittered while most seem at least in public to have been good sports and simply enjoyed the ride At times I found the descriptions of the politics and twists of fate rather obscured the flow of the scientific concepts themselves What I did find remarkable was how several of the key papers were actually the first published papers that the graduate students doing the research had ever written In many cases their academic supervisors were of course visionaries themselves but there were plenty of examples of young prophets being shouted down by their older supposed superiorsThe title The Infinite Puzzle suggests that the book will focus mostly on the intricate uestions concerning whether FTs can be properly renormalized to avoid the generation of infinitely large answers that are physically nonsensical It starts by reviewing how this was shown to be possible for ED which involves a simple local symmetry the phase of the electron s wave function and a massless gauge photon Problems are shown to arise in a mathematical description of the weak force where the corresponding symmetry is complicated thereby predicting three gauge bosons two of which must carry an electric charge and so must have mass The massive nature of these bosons also makes sense since the weak force is known to be carried only a very short distance But the original Yang Mills theory based on gauge invariance allowed only massless gauge bosons reflecting the identical energies of the symmetrical states The premise goes that the weak force symmetry is somehow hidden as in superconductivity which allows for massive gauge bosons to arise Shortly after the Big Bang the enormous initial temperature of the universe dropped so that the initial symmetry somehow gets rotated in a special way and thereby hidden to create the three massive weak force gauge bosons while also keeping the ED gauge boson massless as reuiredI have not attempted to explain any of the jargon in order to keep this concise It will therefore doubtless be a completely meaningless sort of jabberwocky to any reader not already somewhat familiar with these ideas Anyway this is the stage where I have always got stuck One thing Close does hammer home is that it is local symmetry that is important for gauge theories of FT But the theories of Weinberg et al suggest that the electroweak force that we see today has crystallized out in such a way that the original symmetry has become hidden by being rotated by the same special Weinberg angle everywhere in space So I imagine this is a local symmetry that has somehow become crystallized out into a single global direction analogous to one huge ferromagnetic domain I believe this is where the non zero expectation value for the Higgs field comes in Does it automatically find the same minimum value everywhere in space and so causes the symmetry to break identically everywhere Is this somehow a collective phenomenon like superconductivity and ferromagnetism that occurs over all space in the universe As for how on earth this mechanism causes the weak force gauge bosons to acuire mass I still have not the faintest idea This is what I mean by the frustration about these metaphors that take you only so far and then dump you in the middle of a conceptual desert Nevertheless I did come away from reading this book with a far better overall idea of what sort of issues were involved in putting together a consistent Standard Model Although I have no idea how the Higgs mechanism works I sort of get the idea that Yang Mills theory survives because the reuisite symmetries are ultimately still there and so a gauge invariance still applies reuiring gauge bosons that don t have to be masslessClose then moves on to the uantum chromodynamics CD model of the strong force His historical overview tells us how the fractional charge of uarks came to be accepted after much initial resistance how the proposal of a yet complicated symmetry of three color charges enabled yet another Yang Mills theory to be devised with eight presumed massless gluons as the gauge bosons for CD At this stage Close reckons that the reader is comfortable that this too must be renormalizable and focusses on some of the other uirks of the uark model including the fact that they have been shown experimentally to act almost independently when they are in very close proximity My copy of the book was reprinted in 2013 and so Close was also able to add a revised ending that covers the 2012 Large Hadron Collider LHC results confirming a sighting of the elusive Higgs bosonTowards the end Close uses an analogy about cars colliding to explain why it is efficient to have protons and antiprotons crash into each other rather than have protons simply crashing into a stationary target He claims that a car moving at some speed colliding with a stationary car with the brakes off will cause less damage than two cars each travelling towards each other at half the speed of the original car But if I decide to run in the same direction as the first car but at half speed the first case becomes euivalent to the second case so by very simple notions of relativity the physics must be identical I can only assume that Close got confused as a result of making each car go at half speed in the second case in order to make too fair a comparison Presumably a particle accelerator designed to speed up protons to smash into a stationary target can be used with the same acceleration components to speed up protons and antiprotons to the same speed as in the initial design specification thereby gaining its advantage over the stationary targetThe story as presented by Close details how often several physicists were thinking independently along very similar lines At the time their ideas were often greeted with scorn by many of their senior colleagues The fact that these uite revolutionary concepts were dreamed up by than one physicist somehow enables a layperson like myself to view the whole enterprise with less skepticism The overall theory of a unified SU3xSU2xU1 set of symmetries sounds so elegant but the details and the mathematics seem so horrendously complicated The universe appears to have taken some remarkable twists and turns to arrive at the world that we and experimental physicists see today At times the whole thing still reminds me a bit of the Emperor and his new clothes Then again the universe evidently is an utterly weird place when you stop to think about itThe LHC cost an awful lot of money and its realization seems to have been driven at least to some extent by a certain amount of ego Was it worth it At some level one must surely marvel at such an outpouring of human ingenuity both theoretical and technical But it seems to me that as the microscopes grow larger and the theorists somehow magically do manage to come up with theories that explain predict and reasonably neatly organize the myriad of experimental results instead of really answering anything truly fundamental they simply create increasingly bizarre uestions that become ever harder to answer

### review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close

review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close Frank Close ´ 0 free download review The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe 100 Ble Our best understanding of physics is predicated on something known as uantum field theory Unfortunately in its raw form it doesn’t make sense its outputs are physically impossible infinite percentages when they should be something simpler like the number 1. I have to admit this is not much of a review For one I read last year and for two I made very few notesI feel this was of a tour of uantum physics But what infinity had to do with unless I missed it never showed up Disclaimer it could be there and I might have forgot And it failed to provide a very good over view of the nuts and bolts of uantum field theorySo I did rate it 3 s It wasn t boring and fairly well written although not with the panache of my favored authors There was an interesting bit about emotions and scientific discovery that I did find to be something of importance to point out on page 9 of the Kindle editionNot a bad read but not great either

Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free characters The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe I must say that this book left me a bit disappointed and uite underwhelmed it is well written very detailed when describing the historical evolution of modern particle physics rich with anecdotal detail and also conceptually precise and lucid but it simply does not contain enough actual physicsOn the positive side some

review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free Frank Close ´ 0 free download Close provided a history of uantum physics from ED and Feynman's diagrams to the hunt for the Higgs I never get tired of Feynman's antics and it's clear Frank Close doesn't either Like so many other researchers with new and bold ideas Feynman's new ideas associated with ED were not taken seriously The debates were always

review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free Frank Close ´ 0 free download This is a really important popular science book if you are interested in physics because it covers some of the

Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free Frank Close ´ 0 free download review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close I have to admit this is not much of a review For one I read last year and for two I made very few notesI feel this was of a tour of uantum physics But what infinity had to do with unless I missed it never showed up Disclaimer it could be there and I might have forgot And it failed to provide a very good over view of the nuts and bolts of uantum field theorySo I did rate it 3 ⭐️s It wasn't boring and fairly well writ

Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free This is a detailed history of the discoveries of uantum Electrodynamics ED uantum Chromodynamics CD and their unification into the

Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close characters The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe The book is written by a good scientist who wrote some other very clear work and about some fascinating hardcore particle physics I fully expect it to be a 4 if not 5 star book Unfortunately this is deeply disappointing No doubt it’s not a simple subject and it’s not easy for laymen to understand Try this “The uestion was this If symmetry is spontaneously broken in the presence of a massless vector gauge boson such as a photon which

Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free There's almost not a wasted word in this book If you blink while listening you might lose track of the physics The author is very good at writing a history of uantum science from ED to looking for the Higgs bosonHe uses the narrative of the sci

characters The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free Frank Close ´ 0 free download This book talks about the history of physics since the WWII It has a particular discussion on two prominent figures in physics the

Frank Close ´ 0 free download review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free I have always been fascinated by the whole business of the unification of the world of the electron and the photon with the so called weak for

characters The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe Frank Close ( Kindle ePUB or Pdf ) The Infinity Puzzle uantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe – PDF, DOC & Kindle free review ☆ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Frank Close If you are fascinated at all with recent and by recent I mean the latter half of the 20th century development in physics and the major players involved then this book is for you I am of the personal belief that even though science at its best is about the world what makes science human is the people behind it And they like you or I